Born 1939 in Jindřichův Hradec. Studied at the Art School in Prague (1954-58) and at the Academy of Arts, Architecture and Design in Prague (1959-1965); at the latter institution he taught from 1973 to 2003. The focus of his work as a designer is on lettering, which to him is not only a means to express a verbal message, but also the most effective artistic-emotive element. His activities encompass graphic design, book graphics, posters, logotypes, graphics in architecture and stamp design. He designs typefaces and deals with them as a theorist as well. He is a member of the following vocational organizations: Type Directors Club, New York; Double Crown Club, Cambridge; Typo Design Club, Prague. He was awarded approximately forty prizes for his works, both in his home country and abroad.